Power Systems 104

Relay Schemes & Testing Calculations

September 14-16, 2021 | Denver, CO

Training Curriculum

Power Systems 104 is an intense three (3) day course, eight (8) hours per day, which covers the following curriculum. Participants who complete the course will earn 24 Credit Hours:

Applying Trig Functions to the World of Relays

  • Trig Functions Used for Meter and Relay Calculations
  • Law of Sines Used to Find The Boundary of a Lens Characteristic
  • Law of Cosines Used to Find “Delta-V” In Sync Check Relays

Introduction to Basic Logic Functions

  • AND Gate and Its Equivalent Circuit
  • OR Gate and Its Equivalent Circuit
  • NOT Gate and Its Equivalent Circuit

Discovering Transformers

  • Polarity of Transformers
  • Current Transformers
  • VA of Transformers is the same on HV and LV Sides
  • 87T Relay Schemes need to compensate for equal VA on both sides of the Transformer
  • Delta-Y or Y-Delta Transformers Have a 30 Degree Shift, where does it come from?
  • 87T Relay Schemes need to compensate for that 30 Degree Shift

Quadrant Diagrams, Math Operators and Directionality

  • When to use X-Y Diagrams
  • When to use R-X Diagrams
  • When to use P-Q Diagrams
  • Discussion of Power System Events and Faults

Converting Values for Relay Tests

  • Primary Ohms to Secondary Ohms Conversion
  • Polar Coordinates to Rectangular Coordinates Conversions

Calculating Phase-to-Phase Values

  • Step Distance Concept
  • Errors in Protection Systems
  • When to use the square root of three and when not to
  • Calculate and phase-to-phase value without the square root of three

Calculating Symmetrical Components

  • Positive Sequence Calculation
  • Negative Sequence Calculation
  • Zero Sequence Calculation
  • Fuse Failure/Loss of Potential Circuits
  • Forcing Neutral Current
  • Directional Units
  • Zero Sequence Detector Circuits

Calculating Apparent Fault Impedance

  • Phase-to-Phase Fault Calculation
  • Introduction to Zero Sequence Compensation Factor Coupling
  • Phase-to-Ground Fault Calculation
  • 3-Phase Fault Calculation

Resistance Changes Everything

  • Watts Calculation
  • VARS Calculation
  • Line Angle and Power Factor
  • Line Constants, Operating Quantities, Angle of Max Torque and Operating Characteristics

Impedance Plots

  • Draw Load Vector of Fault Vectors on X-Y Diagram
  • Perform the Math from Ohm’s Lawn
  • Draw Load Z or Fault Z Pot on R-X Diagram

Views of a Fault

  • Phase Vectors on X-Y Diagram
  • Impedance Plots on R-X Diagram
  • Symmetrical Component Vector Comparisons
  • Sine Waves can be examined
  • Harmonics can be examined

Relays by the Numbers

  • Relays by IEEE Device Number
  • Discussion of Mho Circles and Testing Device 21 Relay
  • Discussion of 87T Tests
  • Discussion of Generic Testing Requirements for other relays by IEEE Device Number
  • Discussion of NERC PRC-005 Requirements of Microprocessor Relays


Register for $825 Seminar + Printed Book

The pricing includes all instruction, a flash drive with e-copy of the curriculum, breakfast and snacks each day of the seminar, and evening social events. A printed book of the curriculum can be purchased for an additional $100 per person. Seating is limited..

Training Location:
SpringHill Suites Denver Downtown
1190 Auraria Parkway
Denver, CO 80204

Hotel Driving Directions

Book Your Room

Book by August 15, 2021 for $159 per night discounted room rate.

Sessions 8 a.m. – 5 p.m.

Contact Information
321-244-0170 x-348

Power Systems 104 - Denver, CO: Register for $725

Power Systems 104 - Denver, CO: Register for $825

Who should attend the PGE Power Systems Seminars?

  • Electric Power Utility Engineers
  • Relay Technicians
  • Test Engineers
  • University Power System Educators
  • Protection & Control Engineers
  • Engineers Seeking CEHs & Graduate Students

What are the benefits of attending?

  • Learn from subject matter experts
  • Small class sizes of up to 50 attendees allows for dynamic classroom discussion
  • Network with other industry professionals
  • Discounted guest room rates at host hotels
  • Course registration fees include electronic curriculum, breakfast, snacks, andevening social activities
  • Earn CEH credits to maintain your PE license or earn CTDs for NETA Certification.

CEH Credits

The Power Systems Seminars have been approved by the Florida Board of Professional Engineers for continuing education hours. Power Systems 101, 102, and 103 have been approved for 32 continuing education hours; Power Systems 104 has been approved for 24. For attendees seeking PE credits for other states, please check your state’s CEH regulations.


The Power Systems 101, 102, and 103 courses are eligible for 32 NETA Continuing Technical Development Credits (CTDs) and Power Systems 104 is eligible for 24 NETA Continuing Technical Development Credits (CTDs). NETA Certified Technicians (Level III and Level IV) are required to earn a minimum of 48 CTDs every three years to maintain their certification. For more information about the CTD program and requirements, please contact the NETA office at or 888-300-6382.

Request more information about any of our seminars.

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